看物联网怎么样影响当今7大主要行业

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原标题:看物联网如何影响当今7大关键行业

BY MICHAEL E. PORTER AND JAMES E. HEPPELMANN

单一的方式无法定义物联网(IoT)——无论是在系统类型还是在使用案例中,物联网都因行业而异。不同领域之间的物联网大相径庭,为了深入了解物联网对各行业的影响,福布斯(Forbes
Insight)与英特尔(Intel)合作,对700名熟悉其单位物联网项目实施的高管进行了调查。

There is a fundamental disconnect between the wealth of digital data
available to us and the physical world in which we apply it. While
reality is threedimensional, the rich data we now have to inform our
decisions and actions remains trapped on two-dimensional pages and
screens. This gulf between the real and digital worlds limits our
ability to take advantage of the torrent of information and insights
produced by billions of smart, connected products (SCPs) worldwide.

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Augmented reality, a set of technologies that superimposes digital data
and images on the physical world, promises to close this gap and release
untapped and uniquely human capabilities. Though still in its infancy,
AR is poised to enter the mainstream; according to one estimate,
spending on AR technology will hit $60 billion in 2020. AR will affect
companies in every industry and many other types of organizations, from
universities to social enterprises. In the coming months and years, it
will transform how we learn, make decisions, and interact with the
physical world. It will also change how enterprises serve customers,
train employees, design and create products, and manage their value
chains, and, ultimately,how they compete.

图片来源于ISTOCK

In this article we describe what AR is, its evolving technology and
applications, and why it is so important. Its significance will grow
exponentially as SCPs proliferate, because it amplifies their power to
create value and reshape competition. AR will become the new interface
between humans and machines, bridging the digital and physical worlds.
While challenges in deploying it remain, pioneering organizations, such
as Amazon, Facebook, General Electric, Mayo Clinic, and the U.S. Navy,
are already implementing AR and seeing a major impact on quality and
productivity. Here we provide a road map for how companies should deploy
AR and explain the critical choices they will face in integrating it
into strategy and operations.

调查显示,在制造业和金融服务业,物联网系统的增长最为显著。这二者中,分别有47%和42%的业内高管表示,过去三年,他们的网络覆盖增长速度超过了10%。

WHAT IS AUGMENTED REALITY?

调查发现,金融服务、医疗保健和制造业是物联网思维的领头羊。多数情况下,他们正将物联网性能与强大的高级分析或人工智能联系起来。接近六成的金融服务业高管(约占58%)表示,他们拥有完善的物联网计划,其次是医疗机构(约占55%)。在制造业和金融服务业,物联网系统的增长最为显著。这二者中,分别有47%和42%的业内高管表示,过去三年,他们的网络覆盖增长速度超过了10%。

Isolated applications of AR have been around for decades, but only
recently have the technologies required to unleash its potential become
available. At the core, AR transforms volumes of data and analytics into
images or animations that are overlaid on the real world. Today most AR
applications are delivered through mobile devices, but increasingly
delivery will shift to hands-free wearables such as head-mounted
displays or smart glasses. Though many people are familiar with simple
AR entertainment applications, such as Snapchat filters and the game
Pokémon Go, AR is being applied in far more consequential ways in both
consumer and business-to-business settings. For example, AR “heads-up”
displays that put navigation, collision warning, and other information
directly in drivers’ line of sight are now available in dozens of car
models. Wearable AR devices for factory workers that superimpose
productionassembly or service instructions are being piloted at
thousands of companies. AR is supplementing or replacing traditional
manuals and training methods at an ever-faster pace.

那么,通信、能源、金融服务、医疗、制造业、零售业和运输业的高管们是如何将物联网“为我所用”的呢?请继续阅读本文。

More broadly, AR enables a new information-delivery paradigm, which we
believe will have a profound impact on how data is structured, managed,
and delivered on the internet. Though the web transformed how
information is collected, transmitted, and accessed, its model for data
storage and delivery—pages on flat screens—has major limits: It requires
people to mentally translate 2-D information for use in a 3-D world.
That isn’t always easy, as anyone who has used a manual to fix an office
copier knows. By superimposing digital information directly on real
objects or environments, AR allows people to process the physical and
digital simultaneously, eliminating the need to mentally bridge the two.
That improves our ability to rapidly and accurately absorb information,
make decisions, and execute required tasks quickly and efficiently.

1

AR displays in cars are a vivid illustration of this. Until recently,
drivers using GPS navigation had to look at a map on a flat screen and
then figure out how to apply it in the real world. To take the correct
exit from a busy rotary, for example, the driver needed to shift his or
her gaze between the road and the screen and mentally connect the image
on the map to the proper turnoff. AR heads-up displays lay navigational
images directly over what the driver sees through the windshield. This
reduces the mental effort of applying the information, prevents
distraction, and minimizes driver error, freeing people to focus on the
road. (For more on this, see the sidebar “Enhancing Human Decision
Making.”)

通信

AR is making advances in consumer markets, but its emerging impact on
human performance is even greater in industrial settings. Consider how
Newport News Shipbuilding, which designs and builds U.S. Navy aircraft
carriers, uses AR near the end of its manufacturing process to inspect a
ship, marking for removal steel construction structures that are not
part of the finished carrier. Historically, engineers had to constantly
compare the actual ship with complex 2-D blueprints. But with AR, they
can now see the final design superimposed on the ship, which reduces
inspection time by 96%—from 36 hours to just 90 minutes. Overall, time
savings of 25% or more are typical for manufacturing tasks using AR.

对于电信供应商和其他通信公司来说,移动革命凸显了物联网的转型。在参与调查的通信公司中,约有一半(约占53%)的公司要么在流程中嵌入物联网,要么在关键业务领域中嵌入物联网。在通信公司,最普遍的物联网数据源包括音频设备(约占45%),其次是移动电话(约占42%)。最为普遍的应用是预防性维护(约占44%),其次是努力提高员工生产力(约占40%)。此外,超过三分之一的通信供应商在应用计算机视觉和分析技术以更好地理解、预测客户行为以及资产可行性方面处于领先地位,约38%的受访者表示,他们已经在企业的各部门间实现了可视化分析。

AR’S KEY CAPABILITIES

2

As we’ve previously explained (see “How Smart, Connected Products Are
Transforming Competition,” HBR, November 2014), the SCPs spreading

能源

through our homes, workplaces, and factories allow users to monitor
product operations and conditions in real time, control and customize
product operations remotely, and optimize product performance using
real-time data. And in some cases, intelligence and connectivity allow
SCPs to be fully autonomous.

能源公司倾向于将业务分散到偏远地区,如需要持续检测的油气田。能源行业近一半的高管(约占47%)指出,他们要么在选定的职能部门实施了物联网,要么在其业务领域进行了广泛的物联网部署。主要数据源包括机械装置(约占49%)和机器人(约占46%)。能源公司正转向用物联网来监控资产表现(约占45%)、提升客户体验(约占43%)和提高整体效率(约占40%)。有三分之一(约占34%)的受访者表示,他们已经在企业内部深入部署了视觉分析。例如,安装在摄像头上的无人机可以帮助企业监控生产场地及设施的健康和安全,在异常情况成为危险之前就发现它们。

AR powerfully magnifies the value created by those capabilities.
Specifically, it improves how users visualize and therefore access all
the new monitoring data, how they receive and follow instructions and
guidance on product operations, and even how they interact with and
control the products themselves.

3

X-ray vision, revealing internal features that would be difficult to see
otherwise. At the medical device company AccuVein, for instance, AR
technology converts the heat signature of a patient’s veins into an
image that is superimposed on the skin, making the veins easier for
clinicians to locate. This dramatically improves the success rate of
blood draws and other vascular procedures. AR more than triples the
likelihood of a successful needle stick on the first try and reduces the
need for “escalations” (calling for assistance, for example) by 45%.

金融服务

Bosch Rexroth, a global provider of power units and controls used in
manufacturing, uses an AR-enhanced visualization to demonstrate the
design and capabilities of its smart, connected CytroPac hydraulic power
unit. The AR application allows customers to see 3-D representations of
the unit’s internal pump and cooling options in multiple configurations
and how subsystems fit together.

金融服务机构具有高度安全意识,因此越来越依赖网络摄像头和其他视觉传感器,以确保其设施的可行性。如上所述,金融服务在物联网部署方面处于领先地位,58%的调查对象具有一定程度的能力。在视觉分析采用方面,这一领域的公司也遥遥领先——51%的公司报告说,他们已经开发并实现了将摄像头和视觉传感器连接到人工智能和分析系统上的能力。对金融公司来说,手机是首选的终端设备(约51%的受访者选择了手机),还有摄像头和传感器(约占48%)。虽然金融公司在物联网工作中有多个目标,但显然首先要解决的是扩大网络连通性(约占31%),并将物联网作为提高安全性的工具(约占30%)。

Instruct and guide. AR is already redefining instruction, training, and
coaching. These critical functions, which improve workforce
productivity, are inherently costly and labor-intensive and often
deliver uneven results. Written instructions for assembly tasks, for
instance, are frequently hard and timeconsuming to follow. Standard
instructional videos aren’t interactive and can’t adapt to individual
learning needs. In-person training is expensive and requires students
and teachers to meet at a common site, sometimes repeatedly. And if the
equipment about which students are being taught isn’t available, they
may need extra training to transfer what they’ve learned to a real-world
context.

4

AR addresses those issues by providing real-time, on-site, step-by-step
visual guidance on tasks such as product assembly, machine operation,
and warehouse picking. Complicated 2-D schematic representations of a
procedure in a manual, for example, become interactive 3-D holograms
that walk the user through the necessary processes. Little is left to
the imagination or interpretation.

医疗保健

At Boeing, AR training has had a dramatic impact on the productivity and
quality of complex aircraft manufacturing procedures. In one Boeing
study, AR was used to guide trainees through the 50 steps required to
assemble an aircraft wing section involving 30 parts. With the help of
AR, trainees completed the work in 35% less time than trainees using
traditional 2-D drawings and documentation. And the number of trainees
with little or no experience who could perform the operation correctly
the first time increased by 90%.

提到医疗保健,顾客担忧尤甚,他们希望不仅在病榻前受到照顾,而且在候诊室、急救室和商务办公室都能获得相应体验。当前,医疗机构在物联网方面也走在了前沿,55%的医疗机构已经部署了相当完善的设备。在医疗领域,音频设备和移动电话是最重要的使用中设备,46%的行业受访者都提到了这一点。医护监管是最普遍的用例(约占41%),还有设备监控和增强客户体验感(约占38%)。对大多数受访者来说(约占57%),他们还是采用视觉分析来提高客户服务和护理病患的水平。

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5

AR-enabled devices can also transmit what an on-site user is seeing to a
remote expert, who can respond with immediate guidance. In effect, this
instantly puts the expert at the user’s side, regardless of location.
This capability not only improves worker performance but substantially
reduces costs—as Lee Company, which sells and services building systems,
has discovered. It uses AR to help its field technicians with
installations and repairs. A remote expert can see what the tech is
viewing through his or her AR device, guide the tech through the work to
be done, and even annotate the tech’s view with instructions. Getting
expert support from a central location in real time has increased Lee’s
tech utilization dramatically. And, by reducing the number of repeat
visits, Lee saves more than $500 per technician per month in labor and
travel costs. The company calculates a return of $20 on every dollar
invested in AR.

制造业

Interact. Traditionally, people have used physical controls such as
buttons, knobs, and, more recently, built-in touchscreens to interact
with products. With the rise of SCPs, apps on mobile devices have
increasingly replaced physical controls and allowed users to operate
products remotely.

制造商比其他行业的公司更依赖于重型机械来进行生产,因此,他们对了解机器性能有着浓厚的兴趣。制造业组织有一系列的机会——通过计算机视觉来管理和跟踪商品的运动,与人工智能增强系统相联系,可以在事件发生前预测甚至补救。但这不仅仅是管理机器的问题。总体而言,与其他行业集团相比,制造商正经历着物联网带来的最大转变。51%的制造业高管强烈赞同物联网正在为他们的组织开辟新的业务领域。此外,29%的制造业高管报告称,他们的物联网部署使他们能够提供新产品或服务,通信公司的这一比例为29%。大多数制造商(约占51%)声称他们所选择的业务领域是由物联网支持的,或者表示他们已经在企业广泛地部署了物联网。52%的制造商表示,他们也具备可视化分析能力,能够对资产和产品进行实时监控。移动电话和计算机系统是制造商物联网数据的主要来源(分别约占48%和47%),这一领域的主要用例是预防性维护(约占51%)和提高生产率(约占49%)。

AR takes the user interface to a whole new level. A virtual control
panel can be superimposed directly on the product and operated using an
AR  eadset, hand gestures, and voice commands. Soon, users wearing smart
glasses will be able to simply gaze at or point to a product to activate
a virtual user interface and operate it. A worker wearing smart glasses,
for instance, will be able to walk a line of factory machines, see their
performance parameters, and adjust each machine without physically
touching it.

6

The interact capability of AR is still nascent in commercial products
but is revolutionary. Reality Editor, an AR app developed by the Fluid
Interfaces group at MIT’s Media Lab, provides a glimpse of how it is
rapidly evolving. Reality Editor makes it easy to add an interactive AR
experience to any SCP. With it, people can point a smartphone or a
tablet at an SCP (or, eventually, look at it through smart glasses),
“see” its digital interfaces and the capabilities that can be
programmed, and link those capabilities to hand gestures or voice
commands or even to another smart product. For example, Reality Editor
can allow a user to see a smart light bulb’s controls for color and
intensity and set up voice commands like “bright” and “mood” to activate
them. Or different settings of the bulb can be linked to buttons on a
smart light switch the user can place anywhere that’s convenient.

零售业

The technologies underpinning these capabilities are still emerging, but
the accuracy of voice commands in noisy environments is improving, and
advances in gesture and gaze tracking have been rapid. GE has already
tested the use of voice commands in AR experiences that enable factory
workers to perform complex wiring processes in wind turbines—and has
achieved a 34% increase in productivity.

在零售中,销售上的情况并不局限于销售——顾客的行为和反应被研究、评估和衍化。在调查中,有一半的零售业高管(约占51%)表示,他们正在积极部署物联网工作——要么跨部门部署,要么跨企业广泛部署。大多数人(约占53%)也表示,在一定程度上使用了视觉分析,从而能够更好地理解客户的偏好和行为。最著名的物联网数据源包括计算机系统(约占51%)和传感器(约占47%)。对于零售组织,主要用例是启用业务转换(约占44%)和提供增强虚拟现实的培训(约占43%)。

COMBINING AR AND VIRTUAL REALITY

7

AR’s well-known cousin, virtual reality, is a complementary but distinct
technology. While AR superimposes digital information on the physical
world, VR replaces physical reality with a computer-generated
environment. Though VR is used mostly for entertainment applications, it
can also replicate physical settings for training purposes. It is
especially useful when the settings involved are hazardous or remote.
Or, if the machinery required for raining is not available, VR can
immerse technicians in a virtual environment using holograms of the
equipment. So when needed, VR adds a fourth apability—simulate—to AR’s
core capabilities of visualize, instruct, and interact.

交通

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交通涉及运输和物流,物联网系统在管理这些性能方面发挥着作用。在交通相关企业的调查中,有一半的高管(约占47%)表示,他们要么正在进行部门级的物联网起步工作,要么已经在企业内部实现了物联网技术。最重要的用例是提高生产率(约占40%)以及物流监视和路线规划(约占40%)。近一半的运输公司(约占46%)在物联网工作中加入了某种程度的视觉分析,例如,可以在铁路轨道上安装摄像头和传感器,以监测车轮总成的磨损或货车厢的异常情况。

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正如以上案例所示,每个行业都有从物联网中获益的可能。然而,如何洞悉这些技术的潜力,如何在公司和各自行业中实现技术的最大效益,则取决于高管们,善策者事竟成!

AR will be far more widely applied in business than VR will. But in some
circumstances, combining AR and VR will allow users to transcend
distance (by simulating faraway locations), transcend time (by
reproducing historical contexts or simulating possible future
situations), and transcend scale (by allowing users to engage with
environments that are either too small or too big to experience
directly). What’s more, bringing people together in shared virtual
environments can enhance comprehension, teamwork, communication, and
decision making.

附英语原文如下

AR will be far more widely applied in business than VR will. But in some
circumstances, combining AR and VR will allow users to transcend
distance (by simulating faraway locations), transcend time (by
reproducing historical contexts or simulating possible future
situations), and transcend scale (by allowing users to engage with
environments that are either too small or too big to experience
directly). What’s more, bringing people together in shared virtual
environments can enhance comprehension, teamwork, communication, and
decision making.

How IoT Is Impacting 7 Key Industries Today

Ford, for example, is using VR to create a virtual workshop where
geographically dispersed engineers can collaborate in real time on
holograms of vehicle prototypes. Participants can walk around and go
inside these life-size 3-D holograms, working out how to refine design
details such as the position of the steering wheel, the angle of the
dashboard, and the location of instruments and controls without having
to build an expensive physical prototype and get everyone to one
location to examine it.

There is no single way to describe the Internet of Things (IoT)—it
varies by industry, both in types of systems and in use cases. IoT in
one sector is different from IoT in another. To better understand just
how IoT is impacting a variety of industries, Forbes Insights, in
partnership with Intel, conducted a survey of 700 executives familiar
with their organization’s implementation of IoT programs.

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security is going a step further by
combining AR instructions with VR simulations to train personnel in
responding to emergency situations such as explosions. This reduces
costs and—in cases in which training in real environments would be
dangerous—risk. The energy multinational BP overlays AR training
procedures on VR simulations that replicate specific drilling
conditions, like temperature, pressure, topography, and ocean currents,
and that instruct teams on operations and help them practice coordinated
emergency responses to disasters without high costs or risk.

Growth in IoT systems has been most pronounced within the manufacturing
and financial services sectors, with 47% and 42% of executives in these
sectors, respectively, reporting growth in their networks exceeding 10%
over the past three years.

HOW AR CREATES VALUE

As the survey found, financial services, healthcare and manufacturing
are leaders in IoT thinking, and in many cases, are connecting IoT
capabilities with powerful advanced analytics or artificial
intelligence. Close to six in 10 executives in the financial services
sector, 58%, report having well-developed IoT initiatives, followed by
healthcare organizations (55%). Growth in IoT systems has been most
pronounced within the manufacturing and financial services sectors, with
47% and 42% of executives in these sectors, respectively, reporting
growth in their networks exceeding 10% over the past three years.

AR creates business value in two broad ways: first, by becoming part of
products themselves, and second, by improving performance across the
value chain—in product development, manufacturing, marketing, service,
and numerous other areas.

Keep reading to find out more about how executives in communications,
energy, financial services, healthcare, manufacturing, retail and
transportation are leveraging IoT.

AR as a product feature. The capabilities of AR play into the growing
design focus on creating better user interfaces and ergonomics. The way
products convey important operational and safety information to users
has increasingly become a point of differentiation (consider how mobile
apps have supplemented or replaced embedded screens in products like
Sonos audio players). AR is poised to rapidly improve such interfaces.

1.Communications: For telecommunications providers and other
communications companies, the mobile revolution is underscoring the
shift to IoT. About half of the communications companies represented in
the survey, 53%, either have IoT embedded into their processes or have
it in key business areas. In communications companies, the most
prevalent IoT data sources include audio devices (45%), followed by
mobile phones (42%). The most prevalent application is preventive
maintenance (44%), followed by efforts to increase employee productivity
(40%). In addition, more than one-third of communications providers are
in the forefront of applying approaches with computer vision and
analytics to better understand and predict customer behavior, as well as
the viability of assets. In total, 38% report they have implemented
visual analytics across parts of their enterprises.

Dedicated AR heads-up displays, which have only recently been
incorporated into automobiles, have been a key feature in elite military
products, such as fighter jets, for years and have been adopted in
commercial aircraft as well. These types of displays are too expensive
and bulky to ntegrate into most products, but wearables such as smart
glasses are a breakthrough interface with wide-ranging implications for
all manufacturers. With mart glasses, a user can see an AR display on
any product enabled to communicate with them.

2.Energy: Energy companies tend to have operations spread across remote
locations such as oil and gas fields, which require continuous
monitoring. Close to half of executives in the energy sector, 47%,
indicate they either have implemented IoT across selected
functions/business areas or have extensive IoT deployments. Leading data
sources include machinery (49%) and robots (46%). Energy companies are
turning to IoT to monitor asset performance (45%), enhance their
customers’ experience (43%) and boost overall efficiency (40%). About
one-third, 34%, report they have deployed visual analytics deeply within
their enterprises. Camera-mounted drones, for instance, can help
companies monitor the health and safety of production fields and
facilities, spotting anomalies before they become a hazard.

If you view a kitchen oven through smart glasses, for example, you might
see a virtual display that shows the baking temperature, the minutes
remaining on the timer, and the recipe you are following. If you
approach your car, an AR display might show you that it is locked, that
the fuel tank is nearly full, and that the left-rear tire’s pressure is
low.

3.Financial Services: Financial services organizations are highly
security conscious, and therefore increasingly rely on networks of
cameras and other visual sensors to ensure the viability of their
facilities. As noted above, financial services leads the way in IoT
deployment, with 58% of survey respondents having some degree of
capabilities. Companies in this sector are also well ahead in terms of
visual analytics adoption—51% report they have developed and implemented
capabilities employing cameras and visual sensors connected to AI and
analytics systems. Mobile phones are the leading endpoint choice for
financial companies (cited by 51%), along with cameras and sensors
(48%). While financial firms have multiple goals in their IoT efforts,
most pronounced is the need to expand the connectivity of their networks
(31%), along with employing IoT as vehicle for greater security (30%).

Because an AR user interface is purely software based and delivered via
the cloud, it can be personalized and can continually evolve. The
incremental cost of providing such an interface is low, and
manufacturers also stand to save considerable amounts when traditional
buttons, switches, and dials are removed. Every product manufacturer
needs to carefully consider the disruptive impact that this
nextgeneration interface may have on its offering and competitive
positioning.

4.Healthcare: Within healthcare, there is concern about the experiences
customers receive not only at bedsides, but also in waiting rooms,
emergency rooms and business offices. Healthcare organizations are also
leading the way with IoT, with 55% having fairly robust deployments in
place. In healthcare, audio devices and mobile phones are the most
essential devices in use, mentioned by 46% of respondents in the sector.
Employee monitoring is the most prevalent use case (41%), along with
monitoring facilities and enhancing customer experiences (each cited by
38%). The majority, 57%, also employ visual analytics to improve their
levels of customer service and patient care.

AR can already be seen across the value chain, but they are more
advanced in some areas than in others. In general, visualize and
instruct/guide applications are now having the greatest impact on
companies’ operations, while the interact capability is still emerging
and in pilot testing.

5.Manufacturing: Manufacturers, more than companies in other industries,
rely on heavy machinery to produce products and therefore have a deep
interest in understanding the performance of these machines.
Manufacturing organizations have a range of opportunities—through
computer vision to manage and track the movement of goods, linked to
artificial intelligence-enhanced systems that can predict, and even
remediate, events before they happen.But there’s more to the story than
managing machines. Overall, compared with other industry groups,
manufacturers are seeing the greatest transitions from IoT. A majority
of executives in manufacturing firms, 51%, “strongly agree” that IoT is
opening up new lines of business for their organizations. In addition,
29% of manufacturing executives report their IoT efforts have enabled
them to offer new products or services, along with 29% of those with
communications companies. A majority of manufacturers, 51%, state either
that selected business areas are supported by IoT or that they have
deployed it extensively across their organizations. A majority, 52%, of
manufacturers indicate they have visual analytics capabilities in place
as well, enabling the real-time monitoring of assets and products.
Mobile phones and computer systems are the main sources of IoT data for
manufacturers (cited respectively by 48% and 47%), and the leading use
cases in this sector are preventive maintenance (51%) and increasing
productivity (49%).

Product development. Though engineers have been using computeraided
design (CAD) capabilities to create 3-D models for 30 years, they have
been limited to interacting with those models through 2-D windows on
their computer screens, which makes it harder for them to fully
conceptualize designs. AR allows 3-D models to be superimposed on the
physical world as holograms, enhancing engineers’ ability to evaluate
and improve designs. For example, a life-size 3-D hologram of a
construction machine can be positioned on the ground, and engineers can
walk around it, peer under and over it, and even go inside it to fully
appreciate the sight lines and ergonomics of its design at full scale in
its intended setting.

6.Retail: In retail, what happens on the sales floor doesn’t stay on the
sales floor—customer behavior and reactions are studied, evaluated and
evolved. Half of the retail executives in the survey, 51%, report having
robust IoT efforts underway—either deployed across departments or
extensively across their enterprises. A majority, 53%, also report
employing visual analytics to some degree, enabling a greater
understanding of customer preferences and behavior. The most prominent
IoT data sources include computer systems (51%) and sensors (47%). For
retail organizations, the main use cases are enabling business
transformation (44%) and providing training enhanced by augmented
virtual reality (43%).

AR also lets engineers superimpose CAD models on physical prototypes to
compare how well they match. Volkswagen is using this technique—which
makes any difference between the latest design and the prototype
visually obvious—to check alignment in digital design reviews. This
improves the accuracy of the quality assurance process, in which
engineers previously had to painstakingly compare 2-D drawings with
prototypes, and makes it five to 10 times faster.

7.Transportation: Transportation is about movement and logistics, and
IoT systems are playing a role in managing these capabilities. About
half of the executives in the survey in transportation-related
organizations, 47%, report having either departmental-level IoT efforts
underway or implementations that reach across their enterprises. The
most important use cases are increasing productivity (40%) as well as
logistics monitoring and routing (40%). Close to half of transportation
companies, 46%, have some level of visual analytics incorporated into
their IoT efforts. Cameras and sensors, for example, may be placed along
railroad tracks to monitor wear and tear on wheel assemblies or
anomalies with freight cars.

We expect that in the near future AR enabled devices such as phones and
smart glasses, with their embedded cameras, accelerometers, GPS, and
other sensors, will increasingly inform product design by exposing when,
where, and how users actually interact with the product—how often a
certain repair sequence is initiated, for example. In this way the AR
interface will become an important source of data.

As these examples demonstrate, every industry has the potential to reap
the benefits from IoT. Yet it’s up to executives to recognize the
potential of these technologies and determine how best to leverage them
within their companies and respective industries. Those who do will
certainly reap the rewards.

Manufacturing. In manufacturing, processes are often complex, requiring
hundreds or even thousands of steps, and mistakes are costly. As we’ve
learned, AR can deliver just the right information the moment it’s
needed to factory workers on assembly lines, reducing errors, enhancing
efficiency, and improving productivity.

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In factories, AR can also capture information from automation and
control systems, secondary sensors, and asset management systems and
make visible important monitoring and diagnostic data about each machine
or process. Seeing information such as efficiency and defect rates in
context helps maintenance technicians understand problems and prompts
factory workers to do proactive maintenance that may prevent costly
downtime. Iconics, which specializes in automation software for
factories and buildings, has begun to integrate AR into its products’
user interfaces. By attaching relevant information to the physical
location where it will be best observed and understood, the AR
interfaces enable more-efficient monitoring of machines and processes.

责任编辑:

Logistics. Warehouse operations are estimated to account for about 20%
of all logistics costs, while picking items from shelves represents up
to 5% of warehouse costs. In most warehouses, workers still perform this
task by consulting a paper list of things to collect and then searching
for them. This method is slow and error-prone.

The logistics giant DHL and a growing number of other companies are
using AR to enhance the efficiency and accuracy of the picking process.
AR instructions direct workers to the location of each product to be
pulled and then suggest the best route to the next product. At DHL this
approach has led to fewer errors, more-engaged workers, and productivity
gains of 25%. The company is now rolling out AR-guided picking globally
and testing how AR can enhance other types of warehouse operations, such
as optimizing the position of goods and machines in layouts. Intel is
also using AR in warehouses and has achieved a 29% reduction in picking
time, with error rates falling to near zero. And the AR application is
allowing new Intel workers to immediately achieve picking speeds 15%
faster than those of workers who’ve had only traditional training.

Marketing and sales. AR is redefining the concept of showrooms and
product demonstrations and transforming the customer experience. When
customers can see virtually how products will look or function in a real
setting before buying them, they have more-accurate expectations, more
confidence about their purchase decisions, and greater product
satisfaction. Down the road, AR may even reduce the need for
brick-and-mortar stores and showrooms altogether. When products can be
configured with different features and options—which can make them
difficult and costly to stock—AR is a particularly valuable marketing
tool.

The construction products company AZEK, for instance, uses AR to show
contractors and consumers how its decking and paver products look in
various colors and arrangements. Customers can also see the simulations
in context: If you look at a house through a phone or a tablet, the AR
app can add a deck onto it. The experience reduces any uncertainty
customers might feel about their choices and shortens the sales cycle.

In e-commerce, AR applications are allowing online shoppers to download
holograms of products. Wayfair and IKEA both offer libraries with
thousands of 3-D product images and apps that integrate them into a view
of an actual room, enabling customers to see how furniture and decor
will look in their homes. IKEA also uses its app to collect important
data about product preferences in different regions.

After-sales service. This is a function where AR shows huge potential to
unlock the value-creating capabilities of SCPs. AR assists technicians
serving customers in the field in much the same way it helps workers in
factories: by showing predictive analytics data generated by the
product, visually guiding them through repairs in real time, and
connecting them with remote experts who can help optimize procedures.
For example, an AR dashboard might reveal to a field technician that a
specific machine part will most likely fail within a month, allowing the
tech to preempt a problem for the customer by replacing it now. At KPN,
a European telecommunications service provider, field engineers
conducting remote or on-site repairs use AR smart glasses to see a
product’s service-history data, diagnostics, and location-based
information dashboards. These AR displays help them make better
decisions about demand through AR. AR allows instruction to be tailored
to a particular worker’s experience or to reflect the prevalence of
particular errors. For example, if someone repeatedly makes the same
kind of mistake, he can be required to use AR support until his work
quality improves. At some companies, AR has reduced the training time
for new employees in certain kinds of work to nearly zero and lowered
the skill requirements for new hires. This is especially advantageous
for the package delivery company DHL, which faces surges in demand
during peak seasons and is heavily dependent on the effective hiring and
training of temporary workers. By providing real-time training and
hands-on guidance on navigating warehouses and properly packing and
sorting materials, AR has reduced how to resolve issues, producing an
11% reduction in overall costs for service teams, a 17% decrease in
work-error rates, and higher repair quality.

 Xerox used AR to connect field engineers with experts instead of
providing service manuals and telephone support. First-time fix rates
increased by 67%, and the engineers’ efficiency jumped by 20%.
Meanwhile, the average time it took to resolve problems dropped by two
hours, so staffing needs fell. Now Xerox is using AR to connect remote
technical experts directly with customers. This has increased by 76% the
rate at which technical problems are resolved by customers without any
on-site help, cutting travel costs for Xerox and minimizing downtime for
customers. Perhaps not surprisingly, Xerox has seen its customer
satisfaction rates rise to 95%.

Human resources. Early AR adopters like DHL, the U.S. Navy, and Boeing
have already discovered the power of delivering step-by-step visual
worker training on DHL’s need for traditional instructors and increased
the onboarding speed for new employees.

AR AND STRATEGY

AR will have a widespread impact on how companies compete. As we’ve
explained in our previous HBR articles, SCPs are changing the structure
of almost all industries as well as the nature of competition within
them—often expanding industry boundaries in the process. SCPs give rise
to new strategic choices for manufacturers, ranging from what
functionality to pursue and how to manage data rights and security, to
whether to expand a company’s scope of products and compete in smart
systems. The increasing penetration of AR, along with its power as the
human interface with SCP technologies, raises some new strategic
questions. While the answers will reflect each company’s business and
unique circumstances, AR will become more and more integral to every
firm’s strategy.

Here are the essential questions companies face:

  1. What is the range of AR opportunities in the industry, and in what
    sequence should they be pursued? Companies must weigh AR’s potential
    impact on customers, product capabilities, and the value chain.

  2. How will AR reinforce a company’s product differentiation? AR opens
    up multiple differentiation paths. It can create companion experiences
    that expand the capabilities of products, give customers more
    information, and increase product loyalty. AR interfaces that enhance
    products’ functionality or ease of use can be big differentiators, as
    can those that substantially improve product support, service, and
    uptime. And AR’s capacity to provide new kinds of feedback on how
    customers use products can help companies uncover further opportunities
    for product differentiation. The right differentiation path will depend
    on a company’s existing strategy; what competitors are doing; and the
    pace of technology advances, especially in hardware.

  3. Where will AR have the greatest impact on cost reduction? AR enables
    new efficiencies that every firm must explore.As we’ve noted, it can
    significantly lower the cost of training, service, assembly, design, and
    other parts of the value chain. It can also substantially cut
    manufacturing costs by reducing the need for physical interfaces. Each
    company will need to prioritize AR-driven cost-reduction efforts in a
    way that’s consistent with its strategic positioning. Firms with
    sophisticated products will need to capitalize on AR’s superior and
    low-cost interface, while many commodity producers will focus on
    operational efficiencies across the value chain. In consumer industries
    and retail, marketing-related visualize applications are the most likely
    starting point. In manufacturing, instruct applications are achieving
    the most immediate payoff by addressing inefficiencies in engineering,
    production, and service. And AR’s interact capability, though still
    emerging, will be important across all industries with products that
    have customization and complex control capabilities.

图片 5

  1. Should the company make AR design and deployment a core strength, or
    will outsourcing or partnering be sufficient? Many firms are
    scrambling to access the digital talent needed for AR development, which
    is in short supply. One skill in great demand is user experience or user
    interface (UX/UI) design. It’s critical to present 3-D digital
    information in ways that make it easy to absorb and act on; companies
    want to avoid making a stunning but unhelpful AR experience that defeats
    its core purpose. Effective AR experiences also require the right
    content, so people who know how to create and manage it—another novel
    skill—are crucial too. Digital modeling capabilities and knowledge of
    how to apply them in AR applications are key as well. Over time we
    expect companies to create teams dedicated to AR, just as they set up
    such teams to build and run websites in the 1990s and 2000s. Dedicated
    teams will be needed to establish the infrastructure that will allow
    this new medium to flourish and to develop and maintain the AR content.
    Many firms have started to build AR skills in-house, but few have
    mastered them yet. Whether to hire and train AR employees or partner
    with specialty software and services companies is an open question for
    many. Some companies have no choice but to treat AR talent as a
    strategic asset and invest in acquiring and developing it, given AR’s
    potentially large impact on competition in their business. However, if
    AR is important but not essential to competitive advantage, firms can
    partner with specialty software and services companies to leverage
    outside talent and technology.

The challenges, time, and cost involved in building the full set of AR
technologies we have described are significant, and specialization
always emerges in each component. In the early stages of AR, the number
of technology and service suppliers has been limited, and companies have
built internal capabilities. However, best-ofbreed AR vendors with
turnkey solutions are starting to appear, and it will become
increasingly difficult for in-house efforts to keep up with them.

  1. How will AR change communications with stakeholders? AR complements
    existing print and 2-D digital communication approaches and in some
    cases can replace them altogether. Yet we see AR as much more than just
    another communication channel. It is a fundamentally new means of
    engaging with people. Just consider the novel way it helps people absorb
    and act on information and instructions. The web, which began as a way
    to share technical reports, ultimately transformed business, education,
    and social interaction. We expect that AR will do the same thing for
    communication—changing it in ways far beyond what we can envision today.
    Companies will need to think creatively about how they can use this
    nascent channel.

图片 6

DEPLOYING AR

AR applications are already being piloted and deployed in products and
across the value chain, and their number and breadth will only grow.
Every company needs an implementation road map that lays out how the
organization will start to capture the benefits of AR in its business
while building the capabilities needed to expand its use. When
determining the sequence and pace of adoption, companies must consider
both the technical challenges and the organizational skills involved,
which vary from context to context. Specifically, organizations need to
address five key questions:

  1. Which development capabilities will be required? Some AR experiences
    involve more complexity than others.Experiences that allow people to
    visualize products in different configurations or settings—like those
    created by IKEA, Wayfair, and AZEK—are a relatively easy place for
    companies to start. Consumers just need to be encouraged to download and
    launch AR apps, and only a mobile device is needed to use them.

Instruction applications, like the ones Boeing and GE employ in
manufacturing, are more difficult to build and use. They require the
capacity to develop and maintain dynamic 3-D digital content and often
benefit greatly from the use of headmounted displays or smart glasses,
which are still in the early stages of development. Apps that produce
interactive experiences, which create significant value for both
consumers and businesses, are the most challenging to develop. They also
involve less-mature technology, such as voice or gesture recognition,
and the need to integrate with software that controls SCPs. Most
companies will start with static visualizations of 3-D models, but they
should build the capability to move quickly into dynamic instructional
experiences that have greater strategic impact.

  1. How should organizations create digital content? Every AR experience,
    from the least to the most sophisticated, requires content. In some
    cases it’s possible to repurpose existing digital content, such as
    product designs. Over time, however, more-complex, dynamic contextual
    experiences must be built from scratch, which requires specialized
    expertise. Simple applications, such as an ARenhanced furniture catalog,
    may need only basic product representations. More-sophisticated business
    instruction applications, however, such as those used for machine
    repair, will require accurate and highly detailed digital product
    representations. Companies can create these by adapting CAD models used
    in product development or by using digitization techniques such as 3-D
    scanning. The most sophisticated AR experiences also need to tap
    real-time data streams from enterprise business systems, SCPs, or
    external data sources and integrate them into the content. To prepare
    for broadening the AR portfolio, companies should take an inventory of
    existing 3-D digital assets in CAD and elsewhere and invest in digital
    modeling capabilities.

  2. How will AR applications recognize the physical environment? To
    accurately superimpose digital information on the physical world, AR
    technologies must recognize what they’re looking at. The simplest
    approach is to determine the location of the AR device using, say, GPS
    and show relevant information for that location without anchoring it to
    a specific object. This is known as an “unregistered” AR experience.
    Vehicle heads-up navigation displays typically work this way.
    Higher-value “registered” experiences anchor information to specific
    objects. They can do this through markers, such as bar codes, logos, or
    labels, which are placed on the objects and scanned by the user with an
    AR device. A more powerful approach, however, uses technology that
    recognizes objects by comparing their shape to a catalog of 3-D models.
    This allows a maintenance technician, for example, to instantly
    recognize and interact with any type of equipment he or she is
    responsible  for maintaining and to do so from any angle. While markers
    are a good starting point, shape-recognition technologies are advancing
    quickly, and organizations will need the capability to use them to tap
    into many of the highest-value AR applications.

  3. What AR hardware is required? AR experiences aimed at broad consumer
    audiences have typically been designed for smartphones, taking advantage
    of their simplicity and ubiquity. For moresophisticated experiences,
    companies use tablets, which offer larger screens, better graphics, and
    greater processing power. Since tablet penetration is lower, companies
    will often provide them to users. For certain high-value
    applications—notably those in aircraft and automobiles—manufacturers are
    building dedicated AR heads-up displays into their products—a costly
    approach.

Eventually, however, most AR applications for service, manufacturing,
and even product interfaces will require head-mounted displays that free
users’hands. This technology is currently both immature and expensive,
but we expect that affordable smart glasses will become widely available
in the next few years and will play a major part in releasing AR’s full
power. Microsoft, Google, and Apple now offer AR technologies optimized
for their own devices. However, most organizations should take a
cross-platform approach that allows AR experiences to be deployed across
multiple brands of phones and tablets and should make sure they’re ready
for smart glasses when they arrive.

  1. Should you use a softwaredevelopment or a content-publishing model?
    Many early AR experiences have been delivered through stand-alone
    software applications that are downloaded, complete with digital
    content, to a phone or a tablet. This approach creates reliable,
    high-resolution experiences and allows organizations to make apps that
    don’t require internet connectivity. The problem with this model is that
    any change to the AR experience requires software developers to rewrite
    the app, which can create expensive bottlenecks.

An emerging alternative uses commercial AR-publishing software to create
AR content and host it in the cloud. The AR experience can then be
downloaded on demand using a general-purpose app running on an AR
device. Like website content, the AR content can be updated or
supplemented without changing the software itself—an important benefit
when large amounts of information and frequent content changes are
involved.The content-publishing model will become common as more and
more machines and products include real-time AR interaction and control.
A content-publishing capability is essential to scaling AR up across the
organization.

THE BROADER IMPACT

The digital revolution, with its SCPs and explosion of data, is
unleashing productivity and unlocking value across the economy.
Increasingly, the constraint is not a lack of data and knowledge but how
to assimilate and act on them—in other words, the interface with humans.
AR is emerging as a leading solution to this challenge.

At the same time, the rapid evolution of machine learning and automation
is raising serious concerns about human opportunity. Will there be
enough jobs for everyone, especially for people without advanced
education and knowledge? In a world of artificial intelligence and
robots, will humans become obsolete?

It is easy to conclude that new technology diminishes human opportunity.
Yet new inventions have been replacing human labor for centuries, and
they have led to growth in employment, not a decline. Technology has
dramatically increased our productivity and our standard of living It
has given rise to new kinds of offerings that meet new needs and require
new types of workers. Many of today’s jobs involve products and services
that did not even exist a hundred years ago. A lesson of history is that
today’s digital revolution will generate new waves of innovation and new
kinds of work that we cannot yet imagine.

The role of humans in this future is misunderstood. People have unique
strengths that machines and algorithms will not replicate anytime soon.
We have sophisticated motor skills—well beyond what robots are capable
of today—that allow us to do the subtle manipulation that’s needed in,
say, replacing a machine part or wiring a turbine. Even relatively less
skilled work, such as drawing blood, pruning a garden, or repairing a
flat tire, requires human dexterity and defies automation. Human
cognition adapts instantaneously to novel situations; people easily
adjust the way they interpret information, solve problems, exercise
judgment, and take action to suit their circumstances. Humans have
flexibility, imagination, intuition, and creative ability that for the
foreseeable future are beyond the reach of any machine.

While the advances in artificial intelligence and robotics are
impressive, we believe that combining the capabilities of machines with
humans’ distinctive strengths will lead to far greater productivity and
more value creation than either could generate alone. What’s needed to
realize this opportunity is a powerful human interface that bridges the
gap between the digital and physical worlds. We see AR as a historic
innovation that provides this. It helps humans enhance their own
capabilities by taking full advantage of new digital knowledge and
machine capabilities. It will profoundly change training and skill
development, allowing people to perform sophisticated work without
protracted and expensive conventional instruction—a model that is
inaccessible to so many today. AR, then, enables people to better tap
into the digital revolution and all it has to offer.

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